350 XTYM010GY OF LOCAL Krishna was nurtured by the herdsman Nanda. Baval, a village in the same neighbourhood, the reputed home of Badha's maternal grandfather Surbh&o, may be identical in meaning ; or it may even represent an original Eadha- knla, in which case it wonld be curious as affording the earliest authority for BMha's local existence and pre-eminent rank. Koila, again, is evidently not the bird called in Sanskrit JK&ila and in Hindi Koil; for who wonld dream of calling a place simply Cuckoo without any affix such as in the possible com- pound Cuckoo-town ? Neither is it the exclamation Koi Id, uttered by Vasn- deva as he was bearing the infant Krishna across the Jamuna; for whatever the language then in vogue, it certainly was not modern Hindi: nor again, and for a similar reason3 does the word Koila mean 'charcoal/ with a reference to the ashes of the witch Putana> washed across the stream from the town of Gokol. But it may be taken for granted that the final consonant stands for rd and has the possessive force of that particle, while the former member of the compound is either Koi, * the water-lily/ or Kol> for Krora, (a wild boar.' The extensive morass in the neighbourhood, well known to sportsmen as the Koila jhil, renders either derivation probable and appropriate. If the fact were not now placed on record, a few more years and the philologists who look for the origin of Indian names in every language, saving only the vernacu- lar of the comntryy would seize the opportunity of declaring Koila to be merely a mispronunciation of the English <quail.* Similarly, it may reasonably be conjectured that Kukar-gama is not so called because a BanjaVa in his travels happened to bury beside the village pond a favourite dog (htkar), though the slab supposed to cover the dog's grave is still shown; but rather, as the village Is certainly of ancient date and was colonized by Thakurs from Chitor, it is probable that its name commemorates the otherwise unknown founder, since , Kukura occurs in the MaMbharat as the proper name of a king, and may therefore have been at one time in common use. To pass yet more rapidly over a few other Illustrations of the same rule, that apparent identity is equi- valent to real difference: Kamar does not commemorate Krishna's gift of a blanket (kamal) to fee shivering hermit Durvasas, but rather implies a migra- tion from the older town of Kama ; < Ainch' does not refer to the ' sketching* of Krishna's tent-ropes, -through the real derivation is doubtful; < J&f is not £he imperative verb f go/ but a corruption of yrf»a, ' lac;' Mama, now altered by office eopyists to Bhama, has no relation to the * death' of one of Krishna's enemies *, and ' Jait* is not simply an abbreviation for jafav, but (as shown by ft® filkg© pronunciation Jaint) represents an original Jayaatu, which occurs in Sanskrit as ill© same both of a river and a coimtry.